Chapter 2. From Analog Sound to Digital Audio 2.2. Microphones What is a microphone? An acoustic microphone is made of at least an electroacoustic transducer (also called capsule), containing the membrane or diaphragm mentioned earlier and a case to hold it which acts as a windshield. When the sound waves hit the microphone, it transmits its energy … Read moreMicrophones

Human Hearing

Chapter 4. From Digital Audio to Analog Sound 4.4. Human Hearing Sound is coming out of our speakers in our now well treated room. We know it does because our volume meter is pumping up and down. But why do we hear this sound? How is it possible that simple pressure changes in the air can … Read moreHuman Hearing


Chapter 4. From Digital Audio to Analog Sound 4.3. Acoustics We now have speakers to recreate airwaves from the transduced signal coming out of the DAW. Awesome. We are sitting in our room, listening, and it sounds awful. Why? Because the sound interacts with the room walls, ceiling and floor, creating interferences and all sorts of … Read moreAcoustics


Chapter 4. From Digital Audio to Analog Sound 4.2. Speakers Now that the signal is back in the green analog domain of  in the form of electrical voltages, we can get some air molecules to move by placing another set of electro-acoustic transducers in the signal path: speakers. How do speakers work? Speakers are essentially plastic … Read moreSpeakers

Digital to Analog Converter

Chapter 4. From Digital Audio to Analog Sound 4.1. Digital to Analog Converter Here we are. Our trip comes to an end. The recorded sound travelled first through a microphone membrane to generate electrical impulses, then through various cables and electronic components, into a converter to transform the analog signal into a digital signal so that … Read moreDigital to Analog Converter


Chapter 3. In the Digital Domain 3.4. MIDI What is MIDI? We take a small detour from our signal path. So far, the sound has been produced and recorded in the DAW. It might have been processed, changed, altered, or modified. Or not. But what if you want to add another instrument? Say that you … Read moreMIDI

Digital Audio Workstation

Chapter 3. In the Digital Domain 3.3. Digital Audio Workstation What is a digital audio workstation? The Digital Audio Workstation (DAW) is the brain of the audio system: it stores the digitized sound; it feeds information to software plugins for digital processing; it then feeds bit music to the DA converter to transform the processed digital … Read moreDigital Audio Workstation

Audio Interface

Chapter 3. In the Digital Domain 3.2. Audio Interface Now that we have converted our signal into discrete (separate) bits of binary information, we are ready to start playing with it, right? Right – but where does this conversion physically happen? Where is the AD converter? That is where the audio interface comes in (if … Read moreAudio Interface

Analog to Digital Converter

Chapter 3. In the Digital Domain 3.1. Analog to Digital Converter Our signal is about to enter the magical realm of digital information. A lot of the concepts we will see in the coming pages are applicable to video because, in fact, what audio does with sound, video does with images: capture analog information and … Read moreAnalog to Digital Converter

Outboard Gear

Chapter 2. From Analog Sound to Digital Audio 2.7. Outboard Gear What is outboard gear? Depending on the taste and budget of the recording engineer, the amplified electrical tension, representing the signal containing our frequency information, can be directed to outboard gear to pre-process the signal before entering the digital domain through the Analog to Digital … Read moreOutboard Gear